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Prostate Cancer
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Overview

Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland, which is a small walnut-shaped gland in the male reproductive system that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. While some types of prostate cancer grow slowly, other types can be aggressive and can spread quickly. Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow out of control. Growths in the prostate can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Prostate cancer detected early, has a high chance to be cured when it is still confined to the prostate gland.

When prostate cancer spreads from its original place to another part of the body, a new tumour forms which has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the primary(original) tumour. This disease is called metastatic prostate cancer.

Today, we would be providing detailed information about prostate cancer, its treatment and how to lower the risk of prostate cancer.

Signs & Symptoms

There are usually no symptoms during the early stages of prostate cancer. The advanced state may cause signs and symptoms, such as:

  • a frequent need to urinate
  • a weak urine stream
  • blood in the urine or semen
  • painful urination or ejaculation
  • pain in the back, hips, or pelvis
  • bone pain
  • weight loss
  • erectile dysfunction
  • loss of appetite

Causes

The real cause of prostate cancer is still unknown but understanding the risk factors may help to take preventive measures to reduce the chances of developing prostate cancer.

Risk Factors

Factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer include:

  • Age: The risk of prostate cancer increases with age and is common after age 50.
  • Family history: The risk of prostate cancer is higher if someone has a close relative (father, brother, grandfather) who has had prostate cancer.
  • Genetic factors: Inherited features, including changes to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, may increase the risk.
  • Diet: High-fat diet and a sedentary lifestyle can affect the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Obesity: People who are obese may have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
  • Smoking: Smoking is also linked to a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.

Diagnosis

If a person has symptoms related to prostate cancer, the doctor will ask toper form screening tests such as DRE and/or PSA. If the tests detect an abnormality, the doctor may recommend further tests to confirm if you have prostate cancer through ultrasound, MRI and biopsy.

Once a prostate cancer diagnosis has been made, your doctor works to determine the extent (stage) of cancer through imaging tests: bone scan, ultrasound, CT scan, MRI and PET scan.

Treatment

The doctor will design a treatment plan according to the overall health of the patient, stage of cancer, risk category, how fast it is growing, whether it has spread, as well as the potential benefits or side effects of the treatment.

Some prostate cancers grow slowly and may not require treatment at all and doctors may recommend active surveillance. Others which grow fast need treatment as soon as possible. If cancer spreads to other parts of the body and cannot be cured, treatment is focused on prolonging life and relieving symptoms .

The treatment may include surgery to remove the prostate, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and drug therapy. 

Prevention

The risk of prostate cancer can be reduced and prevented through a healthy lifestyle. Here is what you can do:

  • Eat a healthy diet: Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains as they contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your overall health. Avoid fat from dairy products and red meat, refined sugar, sugary drinks and processed food.
  • Exercise regularly: Regular exercise is very good for your body and can keep you healthy. It is advised to exercise at least 3-4 times a week. If you are not used to exercising, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Maintain your healthy weight through a healthy diet and exercise. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat in a day.
  • Avoid smoking: People who quit smoking can reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. 
  • Talk to your doctor: If you have a very high risk of prostate cancer, your doctor may ask for screening tests, medical and family history, and blood and urine tests.  

Outlook

A healthy lifestyle can help you avoid prostate cancer. Eating a well-balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, getting enough rest and not smoking are all important factors when fighting cancer.

The earlier cancer is detected, the greater the chance that it can be treated successfully. The best way to detect prostate cancer is through regular screening starting from the age of 40.

To book an online or physical consultation with the best oncologist in Karachi visit https://www.shifaam.com. You can also download the Shifaam Health App from Google Play Store (bit.ly/2JqZo3C) or the iOS App Store(apple.co/2QUVxQz). We are just a call 021-37132273 or Whatsapp 0347 7222273away!

If you’re concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, you should see an oncologist in Karachi at your earliest. For more information on Oncologists in Karachi or for an appointment with experienced doctors click on the links below:

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